Nadir Shah: Birthdate: estimated before 1923: Death: Immediate Family: Son of Hazrat Pir Zamin Shah Father of Mir Alam Shah Baba and Mardan Shah Baba Brother of Imam Shah; Mubarak Shah and Sahab Shah. Nader Shah was well known to the European public of the time.  An ethnic Hazara, Abdul Khaliq was immediately apprehended and tortured and then executed by quartering along with most of his relatives including his father and uncle. Indeed, it was under the leadership of the first Pashtun ruler, Ahmad Shah, that the nation of Afghanistan began to take shape after centuries of fragmentation and rule by in… This once powerful Muslim state to the east was falling apart as the nobles became increasingly disobedient and local opponents such as the Sikhs and Hindu Marathas of the Maratha Empire were expanding upon its territory. Sword of Persia, or the Second Alexander. He banned certain Shi'a practices which were particularly offensive to Sunnis, such as the cursing of the first three caliphs. He had no source of income other than the sticks he gathered for firewood, which he transported to the market. Frustratingly for him, they resorted to guerrilla warfare and the Iranians could make little headway against them. Nadir had to retaliate with a massacre, which likely claimed some 20K Delhi civilian lives in a span of a few hours. The noise they made on entering woke him up: ‘Who goes there?’ he shouted out in a roar. Nader decided he needed to regain the initiative as soon as possible to save his position because revolts were already breaking out in Iran. Despite being outnumbered by six to one, Nader Shah crushed the Mughal army in less than three hours at the huge Battle of Karnal on 13 February 1739. As he moved into the Mughal territories, he was loyally accompanied by his Georgian subject and future king of eastern Georgia, Erekle II, who led a Georgian contingent as a military commander as part of Nader's force. Spare my life and all I have shall be yours!’ He was still pleading when Salah Khan ran up, sword in hand and severed his head, which he dropped into the hands of a waiting soldier. Nāder Shāh Afshār or Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه افشار ; also known as Nāder Qoli Beg - نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khān - تهماسپ قلی خان) (November, 1688  or August 6, 1698  – June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. In private conversations, no one is allowed to talk about government affairs.. Nader was not impressed with his son's waywardness and reprimanded him, but he took him on his expedition to conquer territory in Transoxiana. ‘Where is my sword? The Story of Mashhad Most of the history is closely related to the 8 th Shia Imam, Imam Reza. Although his efforts to improve the army did not bear fruit immediately, by the time of his death in 1933 Nadir Shah had created a 40,000-strong military force. After sacking its capital at Delhi , he plundered the treasuries of the Mughal emperors , and hauled the wealth westward, over the Hindu Kush , towards his kingdom of Persia. When … 1883-1933 (Birth and death years) Biography Muhammad Nadir Shah (aka Khan) King of Afghanistan 1929-33. , Nader became increasingly cruel as a result of his illness and his desire to extort more and more tax money to pay for his military campaigns. Hanway quoted a merchant he met during his Nader and his brothers played an important role in destabilizing Amani government and they started to support Habibullah Kalakani. 1–16, 175–210. Nader belonged to the Turkoman Afshar tribe, a semi-nomadic tribe settled in Khorasan in northeastern Iran, which had supplied military power to the Safavid dynasty since the time of Shah Ismail I. Today’s installment concludes Nadir Shah Captures Delhi, our selection from History of Persia by Sir John Malcolm published in 1815. Nādir Shāh, also spelled Nāder Shāh, original name Nadr Qolī Beg, also called Ṭahmāsp Qolī Khan, (born Oct. 22, 1688, Kobhān, Ṣafavid Iran—died June 1747, Fatḥābād), Iranian ruler and conqueror who created an Iranian empire that stretched from the Indus River to … It took Nader fourteen months to crush this uprising. Sultan Husayn's son had declared himself Shah Tahmasp II, but found little support and fled to the Qajar tribe, who offered to back him. He is extremely generous, especially to his warriors, and generously rewards all who have distinguished themselves in his service. His army was a mix of Shi'a and Sunni (with a notable minority of Christians) and included his own Qizilbash as well as Uzbeks, Afghans, Christian Georgians and Armenians, and others. , In the spring of 1730, Nader attacked Iran's archrival the Ottomans and regained most of the territory lost during the recent chaos. Although his efforts to improve the army did not bear fruit immediately, by the time of his Download Nadir Shah Full Books [PDF] [EPUB] [Tuebl] [textbook]. Nadir Shah at the sack of Delhi - Battle scene with Nader Shah on horseback, possibly by Muhammad Ali ibn Abd al-Bayg ign Ali Quli Jabbadar, mid-18th century, Museum of … In Europe, Nader Shah was compared to Alexander the Great. Lockhart, L., "Nadir Shah: A Critical Study Based Mainly upon Contemporary Sources", London: Luzac & Co., 1938, 21 : Stephen Erdely and Valentin A. Riasanovski. , Relations between Nader and the Shah had declined as the latter grew jealous of his general's military successes. This concept resembled, in broad terms, the origin myths of 15th century Anatolian Turkmen dynasties. Nadir A Shah … “Tell him,” Nader replied, “that Nasrullah is the son of Nader Shah, the son and grandson of the sword, and so on, not until the 7th, but until the 70th generation.”. The other major prose chronicle of Nadir's reign, the JGN, provides a useful con-trast to the AAN. Meanwhile, Iran's imperial neighboring rivals, the Ottomans and the Russians, took advantage of the chaos in the country to seize and divide territory for themselves. Member of the French Academy of Sciences, Pierre Bayen wrote about Nader Shah the following: “He was the horror of the Ottoman Empire, the conqueror of India, the ruler of Persia and all of Asia. The name Nadir Shah has over 13 birth records, 0 death records, 4 criminal/court records, 54 address records, 3 phone records and more. In 1738, Nader Shah conquered Kandahar, the last outpost of the Hotaki dynasty. He then besieged Baghdad, as well as Ganja in the northern provinces, earning a Russian alliance against the Ottomans. The Indian campaign was the zenith of Nader's career. Nadir Khan named a ten-member cabinet, consisting mostly of members of his family, and in September 1930 he called into session a loya jirga of 286 which confirmed his accession to the throne. He has such an unusually loud voice that he can give orders to his people at a distance of about 100 yards. . This led to the capture of Ghazni, Kabul, Peshawar, Sindh and Lahore. In 1849, the British conquered Punjab and the Lahore treaty was proclaimed. The news of the Iranian army's swift and decisive successes against the northern vassal states of the Mughal empire caused much consternation in Delhi, prompting the Mughal ruler, Muhammad Shah, to raise an army of some 300,000 men and march to confront Nader Shah. Despite its appearance as a constitutional monarchy, the document effectively instituted a Royal oligarchy, and popular participation was merely an illusion. Nadir Shah’s Invasion (1738-1739) Babar was the first of the Mughals to invade India in 1521, and seize power at Delhi by defeating the army of the Lodhi Sultan Ibrahim at Panipat in 1526. towards December 1719, Mohammed Shah Rangila was placed on the throne inspite of the protestations of his widowed mother. The regions to the west of that, mainly Iranian territories in Georgia, Iranian Azerbaijan, and Armenia, were taken by the Ottomans. , At the age of 13, his father died and Nader had to find a way to support himself and his mother. He was driven back to the Soviet side by the Afghan army in April 1930, and by the end of 1931 most uprisings had been subdued. Durrani Empire - 1747-1772. , Nader changed the Iranian coinage system. Nader Shah became the Persian ruler in 1730. Oman and the Uzbek khanates of Bukhara and Khiva regained independence, while the Ottoman Empire regained the lost territories in Western Armenia and Mesopotamia. He was surprised in his sleep by around fifteen conspirators, and stabbed to death. Ernest Tucker, Nadir Shah's Quest for Legitimacy in Post-Safavid Iran Hardcover 150 pages (4 October 2006) Publisher: University Press of Florida Language: English ISBN 0-8130-2964-3 Michael Axworthy , Iran: Empire of the Mind: A History from Zoroaster to the Present Day (Paperback) ISBN 0-14-103629-X Publisher Penguin 6 November 2008  Like the late Safavids he resettled tribes. He faced Topal again with a larger force and defeated and killed him. Shah was proclaimed king on November 8, 1933, within a few hours of his father's assassination, and adopted the title Mutawakkil Ala'llah, Pairaw-i … Emperor Nadir Shah, the Shah of Persia (1736–47) and founder of the Afsharid dynasty, invaded the Mughal Empire with a fifty-five thousand strong army, eventually attacking Delhi in March 1739. Personally, Nader is said to have been indifferent towards religion and the French Jesuit who served as his personal physician reported that it was difficult to know which religion he followed and that many who knew him best said that he had none. Nadir faced many insurrections, including the Koh Daman revolt (29 November – 30 June), the Shinwari rebellion (February 1930), operations against Ibrahim Beg (November 1930 – April 1931), the Ghilzai threat (1931), the Darre Khel revolt (November 1932), and disturbances in Khost. , The Safavids had introduced Shi'a Islam as the state religion of Iran. With lumber from Mazandaran, he built ships in Bushehr. His successful campaign and replenishment of funds meant that he could continue his wars against Iran's archrival and neighbour, the Ottoman Empire, as well as the campaigns in the North Caucasus. . (Wikimedia Commons) 7 / 7 . He imitated their military prowess and—especially later in his reign—their cruelty. In 1912, Nadir assisted in helping the Afghan government defeat the Khost rebellion. After his death, he was succeeded by his nephew Ali Qoli, who renamed himself Adil Shah ("righteous king"). , Nader grew up during the final years of the Safavid dynasty which had ruled Iran since 1502. By 13 October 1929, Forces loyal to Nadir captured Kabul and subsequently sacked the city, and he arrived in the city on the 15th. Find Nadir Shah in the United States. " Soon afterwards, Nader started executing the nobles who had witnessed his son's blinding. On 8 November 1933, Nadir Khan was visiting a high school and was shot dead by Abdul Khaliq during a graduation ceremony. , Nader idolized Genghis Khan and Timur, the previous conquerors from Central Asia. Nader used the pretext of his Afghan enemies taking refuge in India to cross the border and invade the militarily weak but still extremely wealthy far eastern empire, and in a brilliant campaign against the governor of Peshawar he took a small contingent of his forces on a daunting flank march through nearly impassable mountain passes and took the enemy forces positioned at the mouth of the Khyber Pass completely by surprise, utterly beating them despite being outnumbered two-to-one. On hearing the news, Reza's wife, who was Tahmasp's sister, committed suicide. In 1768, Christian VII of Denmark commissioned Sir William Jones to translate a Persian language biography of Nader Shah written by his Minister Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi into French. He had the chief mullah of Iran strangled after he was heard expressing support for the Safavids. the death of the great Safavi leader Nadir Shah in 1747, indigenous Pashtuns, who became known as the Durrani, began a period of at least nominal rule in Afghanistan that lasted until 1978. Nadir Shah slaughtered everyone in the city for 6 hours in a day and killed lakhs of people in the city. His troops captured Esfahan from the Safavid dynasty and founded the Afsharid dynasty in that year. Nader was crowned Shah of Iran on March 8, 1736, a date his astrologers had chosen as being especially propitious, in attendance of an "exceptionally large assembly" composed of the military, religious and nobility of the nation, as well as the Ottoman ambassador Ali Pasha. He also purchased thirty ships in India. One of his descendents, Shah Shuja Durrani gave the diamond to Ranjit Singh of Punjab. SM Sajjadi Nohay & Majalis 3,344 views 1:16:09 For the 20th-century king of Afghanistan, see, A contemporary court portrait of Nader Shah by Mohammad Reza Hendi (c. 1740), now held in London's, First Ottoman campaign and the regain of the Caucasus, North Caucasus, Central Asia, Arabia, and the second Ottoman war, Nader's exact date of birth is unknown but August 6 is the "likeliest" according to Axworthy, p. 17 (and note) and, Tucker, Ernest, "Nadir Shah and the Ja'fari Mazhab reconsidered", in. Nāder Shāh Afshār or Nadir Shah (Persian نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nāder Qoli Beg - نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khān - تهماسپ قلی خان) (November, 16881 or August 6, 16982 – June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. Nadir Shah in September 1741. on, an account in German of the expeditions of Nadir Shah to India, the deeds of the Mughal Shah Al In 1747 after Nadir Shah's death, the ataliq Muhammad Rahim Bi mur In 1740, it was conquered He became so powerful that he decided to depose the last members of the Safavid dynasty, which had ruled Iran for over 200 years, and become Shah himself in 1736.  His father, Emam Qoli, was a herdsman who may also have been a coatmaker. Under their leader Mahmud Hotaki, the rebellious Afghans moved westwards against the shah himself and in 1722 they defeated a force at the Battle of Gulnabad and then besieged the capital, Isfahan. Nadir Shah Afshar was a military genius, but he was also a very harsh and suspicious ruler, who blinded his own son. Sultan Muhammad Khan Telai, Governor of Kabul, Peshawar and Kohat, 4. During the struggle between Adil Shah, his brother Ibrahim Khan and Nader's grandson Shah Rukh and almost all provincial governors declared independence, established their own states, and the entire Empire of Nader Shah fell into anarchy.  He captured Kalakani and executed him by firing squad on the west wall of the Arg on 1 November 1929, along with Kalakani's brother, and 9 other members of Kalakani's inner circle.. Emperor Nadir Shah, the Shah of Persia (1736–47) and founder of the Afsharid dynasty, invaded the Mughal Empire with a fifty-five thousand strong army, eventually attacking Delhi in March 1739. While Nader was absent in the east, Tahmasp tried to assert himself by launching a foolhardy campaign to recapture Yerevan. Nader Shah (en persa: نادر شاه ) (su verdadero nombre era Nader Qoli Beig) (22 de octubre de 1688 - junio de 1747) fue un sah de Persia, fundador de la dinastía afsárida que reinó desde 1736 hasta su muerte. Nader Shah’s choice of red for his clothing, the traditional colour of Royal punishment, only worn by the Safavid Shahs when passing death sentences on wrongdoers. When rebellions broke out in 1743 upon the death of Muhammad Hakim, the shah dispatched the ataliq’s son Muhammad Rahim Bi, who had accompanied him to Iran, to quell them. Erekle II and Teimuraz II, who, in 1744, had been made the kings of Kakheti and Kartli respectively by Nader himself for their loyal service, capitalized on the eruption of instability, and declared de facto independence. At the same time, the Abdali Afghans rebelled and besieged Mashhad, forcing Nader to suspend his campaign and save his brother, Ebrahim.  His reforms may have strengthened the country, but they did little to improve Iran's suffering economy. Wiki/Biography Ahmad Shah Abdali was also known as Ahmed Shah Durrani or Ahmad Shah Abdali Durr-i-Durrani. In 1736, Nadir Shahascended the Persian throne. , Nader Shah was born in the fortress of Dastgerd into the Qereqlu clan of the Afshars, a semi-nomadic Turkic Qizilbash pastoralist tribe settled in the northern valleys of Khorasan, a province in the northeast of the Iranian Empire. King Abdul Rahman advised his incumbent crown-prince not to allow "Al-Yahya" family to enter the country under any terms or conditions. There is a story that says, having demanded the daughter of his defeated enemy Muhammad Shah, the Emperor of Delhi, to marry his son Nasrullah, he received the answer that a royal lineage up to the 7th generation was required for marriage with a princess from the House of Timur.  After the Shah failed to escape or to rally a relief force elsewhere, the city was starved into submission and Sultan Husayn abdicated, handing power to Mahmud. They entered the enclosure of the royal tent, pushing and smashing their way through any obstacles, and penetrated into the sleeping quarters of that ill-starred monarch.  He recaptured the island of Bahrain from the Arabs. “After the death of Nader Shah, the Sovereignty Struggles in Iran and the Iran Policy of Ottoman State” Abdurrahman ATE Ş∗ ÖZET Bu çalı şmada Af şar hanedanının kurucusu Nadir …  It was published in 1770 as Histoire de Nadir Chah. Erekle II assumed control over Kartli after Teimuraz II's death, thus unifying the two as the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, becoming the first Georgian ruler in three centuries to preside over a politically unified eastern Georgia, and due to the frantic turn of events in mainland Iran he would be able to maintain its autonomy until the advent of the Iranian Qajar dynasty. Having heard rumours that his father had died, he had made preparations for assuming the crown. , Nader chose not to march directly on Isfahan. Consequences and Takeaways. His victories during his campaigns briefly made him West Asia's most powerful sovereign, ruling over what was arguably the most powerful empire in the world, but his empire and the Afsharid dynasty he founded quickly disintegrated after he was assassinated in 1747. Invasion Nadir Shah became the ruler of Iran in 1736, his troops captured Esfahan from the Safavid dynasty and founded the Afsharid dynasty in that year.  Following Nader's suggestion, the group did not "demur", and Hasan-Ali remained silent. The strong character of Nader Shah is indicated by the fact that having achieved much fame and glory, he did not allow his pleasers to find great ancestors in the darkness of his origin. So that brings us to the end of this brief account of Nadir Shah’s raid of Delhi. Its We found 18 entries for Nadir Shah in the United States.  Nader's other primary aim in his religious reforms was to weaken the Safavids further since Shi'a Islam had always been a major element in support for the dynasty. In 1901 Amir Abdul Rahman died and crown-prince Habibullah was crowned king. The Mughal Empire was already weakened and reeling under the impact of bitter wars of succession of past three decades, after the death of Aurangzeb. Reza Qoli angrily protested his innocence, but Nader had him blinded as punishment, and ordered his eyes to be brought to him on a platter. He called Ahmed Khan immediately to Delhi and as soon as Ahmed Kh When they came to him, Nadir Shah made a wound on the tip of Ahmed Khan’s ear with his dagger. Explaining Nadir Shah 97 pro-Safavid feeling with the impact of Nadir Shah on Iran in the middle of the twelfth/eighteenth century.  The rest of the Iranian territories in the Caucasus, comprising modern-day Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Dagestan broke away into various khanates. What is a son? 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